This is translation of a German work by Prof. Hermann Oldenberg. The original had attracted the attention of European scholars and the name of Oldenberg is a sufficient guarantee of the value of its contents. The distinguished author has in this work demolished the sceptical theory of a solar Buddha put forward by M. Senart. He has sifted the legendary elements of Buddhist tradition and has given the reliable residuum of facts concerning Buddha’s life. He has gone to the roots of Buddhism in pre-Buddhist Brahmanism and has given to Indologists the original authorities for his views of Buddhist doctrines in Excursus at the end of the work.